Infectious diseases of agricultural animals and poultry
Infectious diseases are caused by germs, viruses, fungi and other tiny organisms that are evolutionarily adapted to parasitism in the animal organism. Their action on the organism of animals due to the toxins (poisonous substances) they release. Microorganisms can infect only certain species of animals and birds or to several species.
The source of the disease may be sick animals, birds and people. The causative agent can be transmitted by animal contact, through air, water, food, health products, clothing of attendants, and with the help of rodents and insects. The source of infection often the corpses of dead from contagious diseases of animals, manure, which contains secretions from sick animals. In some diseases (rabies, FMD, etc.) pathogens are beginning to stand out from the organism until symptoms of the disease; other diseases animals can recover from long time to release from the body pathogens.
Many infectious diseases occur and are spread only in a reduced ability of animals to resist infection. This ability of the body (resistance) is largely dependent on the conditions of feeding and maintenance of animals. Unbalanced, incomplete feeding of animals; deficiency in the diet of vitamins, especially A, mineraldeposits and trace elements; the content at lower or elevated temperatures, at high humidity and high content of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other gases — all this reduces the resistance.
Prevention of infectious disease includes General and specific sanitation. General sanitation is aimed at preventing the introduction of infection. To this end you need to purchase animals only from wealthy households, as evidenced by a veterinary certificate issued by a veterinarian; do not allow contact of animals of your farm with other animals, especially with the strangers. If the owners themselves work with public cattle, it is necessary after work to shower and change the clothes. It is necessary to combat rodents and insects, which transmit many infectious diseases. Before placing the animal room must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. With the constant keeping of animals on the farm cleaning and disinfection of the premises must be done not less than twice a year — after pasture to pasture and before the production of animals pas stabling.
Specific veterinary activities veterinary service carries out. They include diagnostic studies on infectious diseases — tuberculosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, leukemia; vaccination of animals against infectious diseases — FMD, etc.
All activities with infectious diseases are veterinary professionals or under their direct supervision. Therefore, the owner of animals should know the symptoms of major communicable diseases and when to notify the health auxiliaries.